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The lion (latin term: Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae of the genus Panthera. It is the second-largest living cat after the tiger with some individuals exceeding 250 kg. Until about 10,000 years ago the lion was the most widespread large land mammal beside humans. Today, wild lions only exist in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia with a critically endangered remnant population in northwest India. They disappeared from North Africa, the Middle East, and Western Asia.

Lions are predatory carnivors. Most of them live in groups called prides. A pride can consist of about five or six females, their cubs and one or two male lions. A lion will enter adulthood at about three years of age and can reach an age of 15 or 16 years if not wounded or elsohow made valnurable.


The term “Rhino” (short for Rhinocerus) is used to group five different species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. Two of those live in Africa (Black and White Rhino), the other three in Asia (Indian, Javen and Sumatran Rhinocerus). Hunted exceedetly for its horn, three of the species are considered critically endangered (the Javan, Sumatran and Black Rhinoceros), one endangered (Indian Rhinocerus) and the White Rhinocerus is registered as vulnerable with some 9,000 still in the wild.

The rhino is characterized by its large size with all of the species able to reach one ton or more in weight and its large horn. It is of herbivorous diet and has a thick protective skin formed from layers of collagen positioned in a lattice structure.

The White Rhinoceros or Square-lipped Rhinoceros (latin term: Ceratotherium simum) is the most massive remaining land animal in the world after the elephant, along with the Indian Rhinoceros and the hippopotamus, which are of comparable size. This rhino can exceed 3,000 kg.

The Black Rhinocerus (latin term: Diceros bicornis) may reach a body weight of 800-1400 kg. It has a pointed mouth, which it uses to grasp leaves when feeding.


The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo (latin term: Syncerus caffer) is a large African bovid. Savannah type buffaloes weigh 500-900 kgand are normally larger than females. Forest type buffaloes are only half that size. Owing to its unpredictable nature which makes it highly dangerous to humans, it has not been domesticated, unlike its Asian counterpart, the Domestic Asian Water Buffalo.

Buffalos live in herds of highly variable size. The basic herd is formed by related femals. This herd is accompanied by other sub-herds of bachelor males, high-rnaking males and females and old or invalid individuals. When chased by predators a herd will stick close together and make it hard for the predators to pick off one member. Calves are gathered in the middle.


The leopard (latin term: Panthera pardus) is a member of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four “big cats” in the genus Panthera with the other three being the tiger, lion and jaguar. Once distributed across southern Asia and Africa, from Korea to South Africa, the leopard’s range of distribution has decreased radically over time due to hunting and loss of habitat, and the leopard now chiefly occurs in sub-Saharan Africa.

A full grown leopard will vary in body weight between 37 and 91 kg with male animals about 30% larger than females. One of many spotted cats, a leopard may be mistaken for a cheetah or a jaguar. The leopard has rosettes rather than cheetah’s simple spots, but they lack internal spots, unlike the jaguar. The leopard is larger and more muscular than the cheetah but slightly smaller than the jaguar. The leopard’s black, irregular rosettes serve as camouflage. They are circular in East Africa but tend to be square-shaped in southern Africa.


Elephants are the largest land mammals and are of the order Proboscidea and the family Elephantidae. There are three living species: the African Bush Elephant, the African Forest Elephant and the Asian Elephant (also known as the Indian Elephant).

The African elephant is currently to be found in 37 countries in Africa. At birth it is common for an elephant calf to weigh 120 kilograms. Full-grown, an elephant may reach a body weight of up to 12,000 kg. They typically live for 50 to 70 years. Elephants live in a structured social order. The females spend their entire lives in tightly knit family groups made up of mothers, daughters, sisters, and aunts. These groups are led by the eldest female, or matriarch. Adult males, on the other hand, live mostly solitary lives.